Spielregeln american football

spielregeln american football

amfoo erklärt American Football Regeln, die Unterschiede zwischen NFL und GFL Regeln, Spielzügen Schiedsrichterzeichen, Taktik und Rückennummern. American Football Regeln für Dummies einfach erklärt: Ausgerüstet zum Super Bowl. Martin Maciej am , Uhr 1. Febr. Ein kleiner Überblick über die Footballregeln, damit Sie beim Super Bowl Das Spielfeld ist beim American Football Yards lang und 53,3.

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Spielregeln american football -

Funktioniert das aufgrund der Spielumstände nicht, kann der Quarterback auch eine Anpassung vornehmen. Ab der dritten Overtime ist ein PAT nicht mehr zulässig. Das Angriffsrecht wechselt nach diesem Punt und das angreifende Team findet sich jetzt in einer schlechten Position wieder. Fair muss es zugehen. Es reicht nicht, den Ball einfach nach vorne in die besagte Endzone zu schleudern.{/ITEM}

American Football Regeln für Dummies. Grundlegende Regeln. Wie bei Ballsportarten üblich, gilt es auch beim American Football mehr Punkte, als der Gegner. Die Regeln weichen je nach Organisation teilweise of American Football (IFAF ), gelten nahezu unverändert die NCAA-Regeln. Mit freundlicher Genehmigung von Rhein Fire, die mir die Spielregeln von Ihrer alten Seite (als es die NFL-Europe noch gab) überlassen haben. Allerdings.{/PREVIEW}

{ITEM-80%-1-1}Der Football wird aus der Luft abgefangen und neue app für android Angriffsrecht wechselt sirenis resort punta cana casino & aquagames die gegnerische Mannschaft. Welches Teamzuerst beginnt, wird übrigens per Münzwurf entschieden und auch nevios werft casino berlin Beginn der Overtime kommt die Münze zum Einsatz. Dieser Tritt soll dafür sorgen, dass der Ball internet gambling casino weit wie möglich ins Spielfeld des gegnerischen Teams getreten wird. Das ist die zentrale Position porto besiktas Spielgestalter. Die Goalposts oder auch Feldtore stehen in den beiden Endzonen, zehn Beste Spielothek in Pisterwald finden hinter der Goal-Line Torlinie und gleichen einer überdimensionalen Stimmgabel.{/ITEM}

{ITEM-100%-1-1}Draw Ein je nach Spielverlauf hin und wieder beliebter Spielzug: Am Ende des ersten und dritten Quarters folgt jeweils ein Seitenwechsel. Bei einem Passspielzug wird der Ball nach vorn geworfen und die Spieler laufen an die vorher festgelegte Position, um ihn dort zu fangen. Abhängig von der Spielsituation handelt es sich in professionellen Spielen immer um 40 oder 25 Sekunden. Auch in der neuen Football-Saison ist es verboten, den Gegner ans Gitter seines Helmes zu greifen oder gar daran zu ziehen. Er ist der Spielmacher und erhält meist zu Beginn eines Spielzuges den Ball von seinem Center C , der vor ihm steht, durch dessen Beine nach hinten zugespielt gesnapt. Die Linemen dürfen keine Pässe empfangen. Down Ein Down ist nichts anderes als ein Spielzug. Hier gibt es zudem eine Einteilung in jeweils 1 Yards. In dieser Zeit spielt jedes Team 16 Mal. Ok Um Ihnen ein besseres Nutzererlebnis zu bieten, verwenden wir Cookies.{/ITEM}

{ITEM-100%-1-2}Once the ball is hiked into play, it is their job to either hand the ball off to eurojackpot 5.1 19 of their running wetter in polen, or scout the field for an open receiver to throw the ball to. Yard lineswhich can run the width of the field, are marked every 5 yards 4. NFL games running longer schweden fußball nationalmannschaft ". Prior to the playoffs, the overtime winner was simply the first team to score any points; [4] however, they were changed to reduce novo app book of ra freischalten android apparent advantage gained by the team that won the overtime coin toss. Üblicherweise übergibt er den Ball dann an einen Ballträger Runningback oder wirft ihn zu einem Passempfänger Receiver. Ansonsten trustly online casino er überwiegend als Vorblocker für den Halfback und anstoßzeiten 2 bundesliga zusätzlicher Blocker bei Passspielzügen. Points are primarily scored by advancing the ball into the opposing team's end zone for a touchdown or kicking the ball through the opponent's goalposts for a field goal. If he deems a ruling may be in error, he notifies the officials on the field to interrupt the game before the Beste Spielothek in Bellingen finden of the next play. Er positioniert sich im Backfield der Offense und richtet über Downs und Strafen. Any member of the receiving team may catch or advance spielregeln american football ball, and the ball may be recovered by the kicking team once it has gone at least ten yards and has touched the ground or has been touched by any member of the receiving team.{/ITEM}

{ITEM-100%-1-1}Hilft im Backfield überall aus, wo book of dead online tricks brennt. Er spricht eventuelle Strafen aus und überwacht die vier Downs. Zusätzlich gibt es den Umpire, der entweder zwischen oder hinter den Linebackers in der Mitte der Defensive Live steht. Die beiden Mannschaften, die sich gegenüberstehen, werden jeweils in Offense und Defense eingeteilt — also die Angreifer und die Verteidiger. Wird der Ball vom Kicker oder Punter in die gegnerische Endzone gekickt anstoßzeiten 2 bundesliga nicht heraus getragen, so spricht man von einem Touchback. Punt Ein Tritt gegen den Ball, bevor dieser auf dem Boden aufkommt. Der Quarterback sollte hierbei jedoch ein guter Sprinter sein. Pokemon karten x Um Ihnen ein besseres Nutzererlebnis zu bieten, verwenden wir Cookies. Bei den meisten Abbrüchen wird das Spiel zu einem späteren Zeitpunkt wiederholt oder wiederaufgenommen. Book of ra deluxe download kostenlos Körpermasse brauchen sie, um die heranstürmenden gegnerischen Spieler vom eigenen Quarterback fernzuhalten.{/ITEM}

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If a game goes to overtime, a coin toss is held before the start of overtime, but tosses are not held before the start of subsequent overtime periods.

In college, for example, the loser of the toss to start overtime has first choice in the second overtime period.

The choices available to the captains in overtime vary among the NFL, college, and various states' high school rules. In high school, the coin toss may be held between the captains or coaches earlier before the start of the game.

At three minutes before kickoff, the captains meet for a simulated coin toss, where the referee announces the results of the earlier toss.

The XFL did not implement a coin toss; instead an event took place called the "opening scramble", in which one player from each team fought to recover a football 20 yards away in order to determine possession.

Both players lined up side-by-side on one of the yard lines, with the ball being placed at the yard line. At the whistle, the two players would run toward the ball and attempt to gain possession; whichever player gained possession first was allowed to choose possession as if he had won a coin toss in other leagues.

The rules vary from the college level to the professional level. In the NFL, unless you are tagged by an opposing player or give yourself up, you are not down.

A player carrying the ball the runner is downed when any of the following occurs:. The majority of a football game takes place on plays, or downs , that begin at the line of scrimmage.

The officials spot the ball place it in a designated spot on the field on the line of scrimmage and declare it ready for play.

The width of the spotted football defines the width of the neutral zone , an area of the field no player other than the snapper may position himself in or above before the snap.

Each team has its own line of scrimmage, thought of as a vertical plane from sideline to sideline that passes through the point of the ball nearest its own goal line.

A typical offense is made up of a quarterback , five offensive linemen , two wide receivers , a running back , a fullback , and a tight end , however teams will vary their personnel on the field to fit any given play.

A quarterback is essentially the leader of the offense. It is most often their responsibility to pass along the play called to the rest of the players in the huddle before any given play.

A quarterback is the primary ball handler on offense. It is their responsibility to call the snap count for the ball to enter play.

Once the ball is hiked into play, it is their job to either hand the ball off to one of their running backs, or scout the field for an open receiver to throw the ball to.

In some instances, the quarterback will run the ball themselves. A quarterback is guarded by their offensive linemen.

The offensive line is made up of a left and right tackle , a left and right guard , and a center. It is the center's responsibility to hike the ball to the quarterback.

An offensive line has two different jobs. When the offense runs a pass play, it is their job to guard the quarterback from the defense that are rushing.

When the offense runs a run play, it is their job to clear a path for the running back to run through. The running back also has multiple roles.

They will either take the ball from the quarterback and run, move up and help the offensive line block, or go out and catch a pass.

While the role of the fullback is deteriorating currently among professional leagues, it is their primary responsibility to lead the running back.

Running backs and fullbacks are sometimes also called a halfback, a wingback, or a slotback. Like the running back, the tight end also has multiple roles.

They will either help the offensive line protect the quarterback, block on run plays, or run or catch the ball themselves.

The wide receivers primary role is to run out into the field of play and catch the ball, although they will also block in some instances.

The players on offense must arrange themselves in a formation , all behind their line of scrimmage that is, on their side of the ball.

For reasons of safety and competitive balance, there are strict rules which define the way in which the offensive players may line up.

Seven players must line up directly on the line of scrimmage while four players line up behind the line of scrimmage. Within this formation, there are six eligible receivers who may receive a forward pass during play.

These eligible receivers are either the running back, fullback, tight end, or wide receivers. The remaining five linemen, often called interior linemen do not normally handle the ball during a play.

Because of these rules, various leagues of American football have enacted strict rules of uniform numbering so officials may more easily judge which players were eligible and which were not at the start of a play.

For example, in college football , ineligible players wear numbers 50—79, while eligible receivers wear 1—49 or 80— Even within this structure, offenses can still present a wide number of formations, so long as they maintain the "seven and four" arrangement.

Receivers, for example, may play close to the other linemen or they may play some distance down the line of scrimmage, where they would sometimes be called split ends.

Of the four backs, they may play behind the linemen, or may play "split out" to provide additional wide receivers.

These additional receivers can be flankers if they play split far wide, but still in the backfield or slot receivers if they play in the "slot" between the split end and the rest of the offensive line.

The players on defense may arrange themselves in any manner, as long as all players are "behind the line" that is, on the side of the line nearest their own end zone.

Players who line up opposite the offensive line are called defensive linemen , usually with one or two defensive tackles in the middle a single defensive tackle is often called the nose guard or nose tackle and with one defensive end on each side.

A defensive lineman's job is typically to put pressure on the opposing teams quarterback by rushing the offensive line.

The defensive line is also most often the first set of players the opponent must get through should they choose to run the ball. Behind the linemen are the linebackers.

A linebackers job can be any number of things, including trying to rush the opposing teams quarterback, stopping the opponents running back on run plays, or covering the opponents tight end or wide receivers.

Positioned opposite the wide receivers are the cornerbacks. Their primary responsibility is to cover the wide receivers. Farthest back from the line are the safeties , usually in the middle of the field behind the linebackers.

The safeties are the last line of defense against the opponent. Like a linebacker, a safety's role can vary, however their most common role is to help the cornerbacks cover the opponent's wide receivers, which is called "double coverage".

The linemen and linebackers close to the line of scrimmage, are often referred to as playing "in the box". Players outside "the box" usually cornerbacks and safeties are collectively referred to as the "secondary".

A scrimmage down begins with a snap , where the center throws or hands the ball backward to one of the backs, usually the quarterback.

The quarterback then either hands the ball off to a back, throws the ball, or runs with it himself. The down ends when the ball becomes dead see below.

The ball is typically next spotted where the ball became dead; however, if it became dead outside the hash marks, it is brought in on the same yard line to the nearest hash mark.

This spot becomes the line of scrimmage for the next play. In the case of an incomplete forward pass, the ball is returned to the spot where it was last snapped to begin the next play.

A fumbled ball that goes out of bounds is declared dead and possession remains with the team that most recently had control of the ball.

The nearest official typically blows his whistle after the ball becomes dead to alert the players that the down has already ended.

If the ball is alive and the official sounds an inadvertent whistle , then the ball still becomes dead, but the team in possession of the ball may elect to have the down replayed or take the spot where the ball was declared dead.

If the ball was loose from a fumble, then the ball can be put into play at the spot of the fumble. If the ball was in flight from a kick or a pass, then the down is always replayed.

A free kick is a down which does not occur from scrimmage. The kicking team begins behind the ball, while the receiving team must remain at least 10 yards downfield before the ball is kicked.

A kickoff is a type of free kick where the ball is placed on a tee or held at the kicking team's yard line 40 for high school.

In the NFL Season, changes were made regarding kickoffs to limit injuries. Kickoffs were returned from the yard line to the yard line, repealing a rule change.

In addition, players on the kickoff coverage team cannot line up more than 5 yards behind the kickoff line, minimizing running starts and thus reducing the speed of collisions.

A valid kickoff must travel at least this yard distance to the receiving team's restraining line, after which any player of either team may catch or pick up the ball and try to advance it a member of the kicking team may only recover a kickoff and may not advance it before being downed see "Downed player," below.

In most cases, the ball is kicked as far as possible typically 40 to 70 yards , after which a player of the receiving team is usually able to secure possession since the members of the kicking team cannot start downfield until after the ball is kicked.

Occasionally, for tactical reasons, the kicking team may instead choose to attempt an onside kick, in which the kicker tries to kick the ball along the ground just over the required yard distance in such a manner that one of his own teammates can recover the ball for the kicking side.

If it is touched before ten yards, the ball is dead and a re-kick or spot of the ball will be rewarded to the receiving team.

A member of the receiving team gaining possession of the ball on a kickoff may attempt to advance it as far as he can toward the kicking team's goal line before being downed.

Once the ball carrier is downed, the play is whistled dead and the ball is placed by the officials at the point where the play ended; this spot then becomes the line of scrimmage for the ensuing play.

A kick that travels through or goes out of bounds within the end zone without being touched, or is caught by the receiving team in the end zone but not advanced out of it, results in a touchback; the ball is then placed at the receiving team's yard line, which becomes the line of scrimmage.

A kickoff that goes out of bounds anywhere other than the end zone before being touched by the receiving team is an illegal kick: A free kick is also used to restart the game following a safety.

The team that was trapped in its own end zone, therefore conceding two points to the other team, kicks the ball from its own yard line.

This can be a place kick in the NFL, a tee cannot be used , drop kick or punt. In the NFL and high school, a free kick may be taken on the play immediately after a fair catch ; see "fair catch kick" below.

A field goal is scored when the ball is place kicked, drop kicked, or free kicked after a fair catch or awarded fair catch High School or NFL only between the goal posts behind the opponent's end zone.

The most common type of kick used is the place kick. For a place kick, the ball must first be snapped to a placeholder, who holds the ball upright on the ground with his fingertip so that it may be kicked.

Three points are scored if the ball crosses between the two upright posts and above the crossbar and remains over. If a field goal is missed, the ball is returned to the original line of scrimmage in the NFL, to the spot of the kick; in high school, to the yard line if the ball enters the end zone, or otherwise where the ball becomes dead after the kick or to the yard line if that is further from the goal line, and possession is given to the other team.

If the ball does not go out of bounds, the other team may catch the kicked ball and attempt to advance it, but this is usually not advantageous.

One official is positioned under each goalpost; if either one rules the field goal no good, then the field goal is unsuccessful. A successful field goal is signaled by an official extending both arms vertically above the head.

A team that successfully kicks a field goal kicks off to the opposing team on the next play. A touchdown is earned when a player has legal possession of the ball and the ball touches or goes over the imaginary vertical plane above the opposing team's goal line.

After a touchdown, the scoring team attempts a try for 1 or 2 points see below. A successful touchdown is signaled by an official extending both arms vertically above the head.

A touchdown is worth six points, except in the defunct WFL where it was worth seven points. For statistical purposes, the player who advances the ball into or catches it in the end zone is credited with the touchdown.

If a forward pass was thrown on the play, the throwing player is also credited with a passing touchdown. The ball is spotted at the yard line for 1-point conversions ; 2-yard line for 2-point conversions for the NFL and on 3-yard line for college and high school, and the team is given one un-timed play to earn points.

The uncommon safety is scored if a player causes the ball to become dead in his own end zone; two points are awarded to the opposing usually defending team.

This can happen if a player is either downed or goes out of bounds in the end zone while carrying the ball, or if he fumbles the ball, and it goes out of bounds in the end zone.

A safety is also awarded to the defensive team if the offensive team commits a foul which is enforced in its own end zone. A safety is not awarded if a player intercepts a pass or receives a kick in his own end zone and is downed there.

This situation, in which the opponent caused the ball to enter the end zone, is called a touchback ; no points are scored, and the team that gained possession of the ball is awarded possession at its own yard line.

If the interception or reception occurs outside the end zone, and the player is carried into the end zone by momentum, the ball is placed at the spot of the catch and no safety is awarded.

A safety is signaled by a referee holding both palms together above the head, fingertips pointing upwards. After a safety, the team that conceded the safety kicks a free kick which may be a punt, place kick, or drop kick from its yard line.

A free kick see above may be taken on the play immediately after any fair catch of a punt. The ball must be held on the ground by a member of the kicking team or drop kicked; a tee may not be used.

High school kickers may use a tee. This is both a field goal attempt and a free kick; if the ball is kicked between the goal posts, three points are scored for the kicking team.

This is the only case where a free kick may score points. This method of scoring is extremely rare, last successfully completed in the NFL by Ray Wersching in It is only advantageous when a team catches a very short punt with very little time left.

Note that a team is unlikely to be punting with only a few seconds left in a half or overtime, and it is rarer still for punts to be caught near field goal range.

The officials' signal for a successful fair catch kick is the same as for a field goal. The game is officiated by a crew of three to seven officials.

Every crew will consist of a referee , who is generally in charge of the game and watches action on the quarterback and in the offensive backfield; an umpire , who handles spotting the ball and watches action on the offensive line; and a head linesman , who supervises placement of the down box and line-to-gain chains.

The crew may also consist of a line judge , back judge , field judge and side judge , in the order listed: Officials are selected by the teams in advance or appointed by the governing league.

While the majority of officials at lower levels only officiate games on a part-time basis, the NFL is implementing a new system where seven officials will become full-time employees of the league, one for each official position i.

During the game, the officials are assisted in the administration of the game by other persons, including: These individuals may be provided by the teams involved — it is common for a high school coach's son or daughter to act as ball boy for the team.

Because football is a high- contact sport requiring a balance between offense and defense, many rules exist that regulate equality, safety, contact, and actions of players on each team.

It is very difficult to always avoid violating these rules without giving up too much of an advantage. Thus, an elaborate system of fouls and penalties has been developed to "let the punishment fit the crime" and maintain a balance between following the rules and keeping a good flow of the game.

Players are constantly looking for ways to find an advantage that stretches the limitations imposed by the rules. Also, the frequency and severity of fouls can make a large difference in the outcome of a game, so coaches are constantly looking for ways to minimize the number and severity of infractions committed by their players.

It is a common misconception that the term "penalty" is used to refer both to an infraction and the penal consequence of that infraction.

A foul is a rule infraction for which a penalty is prescribed. In most cases when a foul occurs, the offending team will be assessed a penalty of 5, 10 or 15 yards, depending on the foul.

Also, in most cases, if the foul is committed while the ball is in play, the down will be replayed from the new position for example, if the offense commits a foul on a first-down play, the next play will still be first down, but the offense may have to go 15 yards, or farther, to achieve another first down.

But if a defensive foul results in the ball advancing beyond the offense's first-down objective, the next play will be the first down of a new series.

Some penalties typically for more serious fouls , however, require a loss of down for the offense; and some defensive fouls may result in an automatic first down regardless of the ball position.

In all cases except for ejection of a player or, in rare cases, forfeiture of the game , the non-offending team is given the option of declining the penalty and letting the result of the play stand although the Referee may exercise this option on their behalf when it is obvious , if they believe it to be more to their advantage.

For some fouls by the defense, the penalty is applied in addition to the yardage gained on the play. Most personal fouls , which involve danger to another player, carry yard penalties; in rare cases, they result in offending players being ejected from the game.

In the NFL, if a defensive foul occurs after time has expired at the end of a half, the half will be continued for a single, untimed play from scrimmage.

Under college rules, any accepted penalty when time has expired at the end of any quarter results in an extension for one untimed down.

In the NFL, with three exceptions, no penalty may move the ball more than half the distance toward the penalized team's goal line.

However, Camp successfully proposed a rule in that limited each team to three downs , or tackles, to advance the ball five yards. Failure to advance the ball the required distance within those three downs would result in control of the ball being forfeited to the other team.

This change effectively made American football a separate sport from rugby, and the resulting five-yard lines added to the field to measure distances made it resemble a gridiron in appearance.

Other major rule changes included a reduction of the field size to by Despite these new rules, football remained a violent sport.

Dangerous mass-formations, which involved interlocking interference, like the flying wedge resulted in serious injuries and deaths. The legal forward pass was introduced in , although its impact was initially limited due to the restrictions placed on its use.

Other rule changes introduced that year included the reduction of the time of play from 70 to 60 minutes and the increase of the distance required for a first down from 5 to 10 yards 9.

To reduce infighting and dirty play between teams, the neutral zone was created along the width of the football.

This is the first recorded instance of a player being paid to participate in a game of American football , although many athletic clubs in the s offered indirect benefits, such as helping players attain employment, giving out trophies or watches that players could pawn for money, or paying double in expense money.

Despite these extra benefits, the game had a strict sense of amateurism at the time, and direct payment to players was frowned upon, if not outright prohibited.

Over time, professional play became increasingly common, and with it came rising salaries and unpredictable player movement, as well as the illegal payment of college players who were still in school.

The National Football League NFL , a group of professional teams that was originally established in as the American Professional Football Association, aimed to solve these problems.

This new league's stated goals included an end to bidding wars over players, prevention of the use of college players, and abolition of the practice of paying players to leave another team.

The dominant form of football at the time was played at the collegiate level , but the upstart NFL received a boost to its legitimacy in when an NFL team, the Pottsville Maroons , defeated a team of Notre Dame all-stars in an exhibition game.

The game, a 23—17 overtime victory by the Colts, was seen by millions of television viewers and had a major impact on the popularity of the sport.

This, along with the innovations introduced by the new American Football League AFL in the early s, helped football to become the most popular sport in the United States by the mids.

The bidding war for players ended in , when NFL owners approached the AFL regarding a merger, and the two leagues agreed on one that would take full effect in This agreement provided for a common draft that would take place each year, and it instituted an annual World Championship game to be played between the champions of each league.

That game began play at the end of the season. Once the merger was completed, it was no longer a championship game between two leagues, and reverted to the NFL championship game, which came to be known as the Super Bowl.

College football maintained a tradition of postseason bowl games. Each bowl game would be associated with a particular conference, and earning a spot in a bowl game was the reward for winning a conference.

This arrangement was profitable, but it tended to prevent the two top-ranked teams from meeting in a true national championship game, as they would normally be committed to the bowl games of their respective conferences.

Several systems have been used since to determine a national champion of college football. The first was the Bowl Coalition , in place from to A football game is played between two teams of 11 players each.

Individual players in a football game must be designated with a uniform number between 1 and NFL teams are required to number their players by a league-approved numbering system, and any exceptions must be approved by the Commissioner.

The role of the offensive unit is to advance the football down the field with the ultimate goal of scoring a touchdown. The offensive team must line up in a legal formation before they can snap the ball.

An offensive formation is considered illegal if there are more than four players in the backfield or fewer than five players numbered 50—79 on the offensive line.

Interior offensive linemen are not allowed to move until the snap of the ball. The quarterback is the leader of the offense.

Either the quarterback or a coach calls the plays. Quarterbacks typically inform the rest of the offense of the play in the huddle before the team lines up.

The quarterback lines up behind the center to take the snap and then hands the ball off, throws it or runs with it. The primary role of the halfback, also known as the running back or tailback, is to carry the ball on running plays.

Halfbacks may also serve as receivers. Fullbacks tend to be larger than halfbacks and function primarily as blockers, but they are sometimes used as runners in short-yardage situations [47] and are seldom used in passing situations.

The offensive line OL consists of several players whose primary function is to block members of the defensive line from tackling the ball carrier on running plays or sacking the quarterback on passing plays.

The principal receivers are the wide receivers WR and the tight ends TE. The main goal of the wide receiver is to catch passes thrown by the quarterback, [47] but they may also function as decoys or as blockers during running plays.

Tight ends line up outside the tackles and function both as receivers and as blockers. The role of the defense is to prevent the offense from scoring by tackling the ball carrier or by forcing turnovers interceptions or fumbles.

Defensive ends line up on the ends of the line, while defensive tackles line up inside, between the defensive ends.

The primary responsibilities of defensive ends and defensive tackles is to stop running plays on the outside and inside, respectively, to pressure the quarterback on passing plays, and to occupy the line so that the linebackers can break through.

Linebackers line up behind the defensive line but in front of the defensive backfield. They are divided into two types: Linebackers are the defensive leaders and call the defensive plays.

Their diverse roles include defending the run, pressuring the quarterback, and guarding backs, wide receivers and tight ends in the passing game.

The defensive backfield , often called the secondary, consists of cornerbacks CB and safeties S. Safeties are themselves divided into free safeties FS and strong safeties SS.

Safeties are the last line of defense, and are responsible for stopping deep passing plays as well as running plays.

The special teams unit is responsible for all kicking plays. The special teams unit of the team in control of the ball will try and execute field goal FG attempts, punts and kickoffs , while the opposing team's unit will aim to block or return them.

Three positions are specific to the field goal and PAT point-after-touchdown unit: The long snapper's job is to snap the football to the holder, who will catch and position it for the placekicker.

There is not usually a holder on kickoffs, because the ball is kicked off of a tee; however, a holder may be used in certain situations, such as if wind is preventing the ball from remaining upright on the tee.

The player on the receiving team who catches the ball is known as the kickoff returner KR. The positions specific to punt plays are the punter P , long snapper, upback and gunner.

The long snapper snaps the football directly to the punter, who then drops and kicks it before it hits the ground. Gunners line up split outside the line and race down the field, aiming to tackle the punt returner PR — the player that catches the punt.

Upbacks line up a short distance behind the line of scrimmage, providing additional protection to the punter. In American football, the winner is the team that has scored the most points at the end of the game.

There are multiple ways to score in a football game. The touchdown TD , worth six points, is the most valuable scoring play in American football.

A touchdown is scored when a live ball is advanced into, caught in, or recovered in the end zone of the opposing team.

A PAT is most commonly attempted from the two- or three-yard line, depending on the level of play. If scored by a placekick or dropkick through the goal posts, it is worth one point, and is typically called the extra point.

In such a case, a successful attempt is called the two-point conversion [54] and is worth two points. For the season, the NFL adopted a rules on PATs that stated during an extra point the placekick must be snapped from the yard line and on extra points if the kick is blocked and the opposing team returns it into the end zone or if during a two-point conversion the ball is fumbled or intercepted and returned to the end zone the opposing team will score two points.

No points are awarded on a failed extra point or two-point conversion attempt, although under a rare set of circumstances it is possible to score a safety, worth one point, if the defense takes the ball back into its own end zone and is downed there.

A field goal FG , worth three points, is scored when the ball is placekicked or dropkicked through the uprights and over the crossbars of the defense's goalposts.

A safety is scored when the ball carrier is tackled in their own end zone. Safeties are worth two points, which are awarded to the defense.

Lines marked along the ends and sides of the field are known respectively as the end lines and sidelines , and goal lines are marked 10 yards 9.

Weighted pylons are placed on the inside corner of the intersections of the goal lines and end lines. White markings on the field identify the distance from the end zone.

Inbound lines, or hash marks , are short parallel lines that mark off 1 yard 0. Yard lines , which can run the width of the field, are marked every 5 yards 4.

A one-yard-wide line is placed at each end of the field; this line is marked at the center of the two-yard line in professional play and at the three-yard line in college play.

Numerals that display the distance from the closest goal line in yards are placed on both sides of the field every ten yards. Goalposts are located at the center of the plane of each of the two end lines.

The crossbar of these posts is ten feet 3. Goal posts are padded at the base, and orange ribbons are normally placed at the tip of each upright.

The football itself is an oval ball, similar to the balls used in rugby or Australian rules football. Football games last for a total of 60 minutes in professional and college play and are divided into two-halves of 30 minutes and four-quarters of 15 minutes.

The visiting team is allowed to call 'heads' or 'tails'; the winner of the toss is allowed to decide between choosing whether to receive or kick off the ball or choosing which goal they want to defend, but they can also defer their choice until the second half.

The losing team, unless the winning team decides to defer, is allowed to choose the option the winning team did not select, and receives the option to receive, kick, or select a goal to defend to begin the second half.

Most teams choose to receive or defer, because choosing to kick the ball to start the game would allow the other team to choose which goal to defend.

Games last longer than their defined length due to play stoppages — the average NFL game lasts slightly over three hours.

An operator is responsible for starting, stopping and operating the game clock based on the direction of the appropriate official. If the play clock expires before the ball has been snapped or free-kicked, a delay of game foul is called on the offense.

The play clock is set to 40 seconds in professional and college football and to 25 seconds in high school play or following certain administrative stoppages in the former levels of play.

There are two main ways that the offense can advance the ball: In a typical play, the quarterback calls the play, and the center passes the ball backwards and under their legs to the quarterback in a process known as the snap.

The quarterback then either hands the ball off to a back, throws the ball or runs with it. The play ends when the player with the ball is tackled or goes out of bounds, or a pass hits the ground without a player having caught it.

A forward pass can only be legally attempted if the passer is behind the line of scrimmage. The offense is given a series of four plays, known as downs.

If the offense advances ten or more yards in the four downs, they are awarded a new set of four downs. If they fail to advance ten yards, possession of the football is turned over to the defense.

In most situations, if the offense reaches their fourth down they will punt the ball to the other team, which forces them to begin their drive from further down the field; if they are in field goal range , they might also attempt to score a field goal.

There are two categories of kicks in football: On a kickoff, the ball is placed at the yard line of the kicking team in professional and college play and at the yard line in high school play.

The ball may be drop-kicked or place-kicked. If a place kick is chosen, the ball can be placed on the ground or on a tee, and a holder may be used in either case.

On a safety kick, the kicking team kicks the ball from their own yard line. They can punt, drop-kick or place-kick the ball, but a tee may not be used in professional play.

Any member of the receiving team may catch or advance the ball, and the ball may be recovered by the kicking team once it has gone at least ten yards and has touched the ground or has been touched by any member of the receiving team.

The three types of scrimmage kicks are place kicks, drop kicks, and punts. Only place kicks and drop kicks can score points.

If it is touched or recovered by the kicking team beyond this line, it becomes dead at the spot where it was touched. This prohibits the defense from blocking into or tackling the receiver, but the play ends as soon as the ball is caught and the ball may not be advanced.

Officials are responsible for enforcing game rules and monitoring the clock. All officials carry a whistle and wear black-and-white striped shirts and black hats except for the referee, whose hat is white.

Each carries a weighted yellow flag that is thrown to the ground to signal that a foul has been called. An official who spots multiple fouls will throw their hat as a secondary signal.

Another set of officials, the chain crew , are responsible for moving the chains. The chains, consisting of two large sticks with a yard-long chain between them, are used to measure for a first down.

The chain crew stays on the sidelines during the game, but if requested by the officials they will briefly bring the chains on to the field to measure.

A typical chain crew will have at least three people — two members of the chain crew will hold either of the two sticks, while a third will hold the down marker.

The down marker, a large stick with a dial on it, is flipped after each play to indicate the current down, and is typically moved to the approximate spot of the ball.

The chain crew system has been used for over years and is considered to be an accurate measure of distance, rarely subject to criticism from either side.

Football is a full-contact sport, and injuries are relatively common. Most injuries occur during training sessions, particularly ones that involve contact between players.

At a minimum players must wear a football helmet and a set of shoulder pads , but individual leagues may require additional padding such as thigh pads and guards, knee pads, chest protectors, and mouthguards.

The most common types of injuries are strains , sprains , bruises , fractures, dislocations , and concussions.

Repeated concussions and possibly sub-concussive head impacts [] can increase a person's risk in later life for CTE chronic traumatic encephalopathy and mental health issues such as dementia , Parkinson's disease , and depression.

A study performed by the VA Boston Healthcare System and Boston University's school of medicine found that tackle football before age 12 was correlated with earlier onset of symptoms of CTE, but not with symptom severity.

More specifically, each year a player played tackle football under age 12 predicted earlier onset of cognitive, behavioral, and mood problems by an average of two and a half years.

College football is the third-most popular sport in the United States, behind professional baseball and professional football. High school football is the most popular sport in the United States played by boys; over 1.

The NFHS is the largest organization for high school football, with member associations in all 50 states as well as the District of Columbia.

USA Football is the governing body for youth and amateur football, [] and Pop Warner Little Scholars is the largest organization for youth football.

Several professional football leagues have been formed as rival leagues to the NFL. An earlier league, the All-America Football Conference , was in play from to Other attempts to start rival leagues have been far less successful.

The World Football League WFL played for two seasons, in and , but faced monetary issues so severe that the league could not pay its players.

In its second and final season the WFL attempted to establish a stable credit rating, but the league disbanded before its second season could be completed.

American football leagues exist throughout the world, but the game has yet to achieve the international success and popularity of baseball and basketball.

The league's championship game is the Eurobowl. All of these countries rank far below the United States, which is dominant at the international level.

Football is not an Olympic sport , but it was a demonstration sport at the Summer Olympics. Large team sizes are an additional difficulty, due to the Olympics' set limit of 10, athletes and coaches.

American football also has the issue of global visibility. Professional football has ranked as the most popular sport in the poll since , when it surpassed baseball for the first time.

In a study, the NCAA estimated there were around 1. American football also plays a significant role in American culture. The day on which the Super Bowl is held is considered a de facto national holiday , [] and in parts of the country like Texas , the sport has been compared to a religion.

Merit is rewarded, not punished. Masculinity is celebrated, not feminized. People of various beliefs and backgrounds — a melting pot, if you will — must unify for a common goal for the team to be successful".

The safety of the sport has also sparked national controversy in American popular culture. It is often received as "overly aggressive", and defamiliarized in popular culture.

Bennet Omalu , a neuropathologist who was the first to discover and publish findings of chronic traumatic encephalopathy CTE. American football was the second-most popular sport in Mexico in the s, with the game being particularly popular in colleges.

American football is the fifth most popular sport in Mexico and the country has the highest rating of the NFL outside the United States.

Japan was introduced to the sport in by Paul Rusch , a teacher and Christian missionary who helped establish football teams at three universities in Tokyo.

Play was halted during World War II, but began to grow in popularity again after the war. As of [update] , there are more than high school football teams in Japan, with over 15, participants, and over teams play in the Kantoh Collegiate Football Association KCFA.

Europe is a major target for expansion of the game by football organizers. In the United Kingdom in the s, the sport was fairly popular, with the Super Bowl being watched by over 4 million people about 1 out of every 14 Britons.

The sport's popularity faded over the s, coinciding with the establishment of the Premier League. According to BBC America , there is a "social stigma" surrounding American football in the UK, with many Brits feeling the sport has no right to call itself 'football' due to the small emphasis on kicking.

Super Bowl viewership has also rebounded, with over 4. The sport is played in European countries such as Switzerland, which has American football clubs in every major city, [] and Germany, where the sport has around 45, registered amateur players.

But in these countries American football has not yet reached the same level of popularity it has, for example, in North America. Brazil's audience is the 3rd of the world, behind only Mexico and United States.

Rumors were that a Pro Bowl edition could be held there. One of the reasons of that boom in audience is the placekicker of Kansas City Chiefs , Cairo Santos , the first Brazilian player to reach some worldwide success in the sport.

To , a strongest league will get start in June, including 32 teams around the country, in 4 conferences.

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Wenn die Defense die Offense bis in ihre eigene Endzone zurückdrängt und dort den gegnerischen Ballträger tackelt , kann sie einen Safety erzielen. Bei den 10 Yards befindet sich nochmals eine zusätzliche Beschriftung. Alle fünf Spieler dieser Formation dürfen keine Pässe empfangen! Passspielzüge sind recht komplex und folgen ebenfalls eigenen Regeln. In 6 Mann Crews gibt es keinen Back Judge. Was passiert bei einem Down? Sie spielen insbesondere bei der Protokollierung von Spielen eine Rolle:. Selbiges gilt auch für ein Field Goal, das daneben gegangen ist. Wenn der Spielzug läuft und ein Nichtspieler das Spiel beeinträchtigt, kann der Schiedsrichter einen Timeout ansagen. Gelangt die gegnerische Mannschaft an den Ball, ist dies ein Turnover.{/ITEM}

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